Maya Ugulava

Doctoral student

Business Technologies Faculty at

Georgian Technical University

Otar Baghaturia

Associate Professor

Business Technologies Faculty

Georgian Technical University

Abstract: The article discusses the importance of organizational structural communication in terms of effective management. Author mentions General theoretical considerations as well as distinguishing marks between types of communication.

At the end, the considerations are summarised to present the concepts of internal and external structural communications.

Keywords: Organization, Communication, Internal, External, Structural.

The importance of organizational communication

Communication is a complex process in which the sender sends a message carrying a specific content through an appropriate source to the addressee, who is obliged to decrypt the message in the background of specific circumstances. [1] This process is much more complicated when we talk about organizational communication, where both the volume of messages and the groups of recipients increases. Organizational communication carries a number of meanings that can be divided into different categories, however, all of them are ultimately aimed at the successful execution of a common organizational mission, as the organization views communication as a kind of mechanism and means. Organizational communication assists us in the implementation of any complexity or specific activity and guarantees the effective performance of certain tasks, procedures, and regulations. At the same time, it is through communication that the organizational culture is formed, which defines the values, priorities, goals, awareness, values , and specificity of the relationship between employees.[2] It should also be noted that the quality of communication is directly related to the quality of  success, and the more efficiently the communication process is conducted, the more effective the organizational goals will be. Organizational communication is divided into internal and external structural communications, which will be discussed in more detail in other chapters of the article.

Internal Structural Communication

Relevant exchange of information between employees is especially important for the effective functioning of the organization, and these processes will take place at the expense of internal structural communication. [1]The internal environment of the organization essentially determines how it interacts with external structures, thus increasing its potential, precisely that is achieved through an effectively developed internal organizational structure. Conversely, the internal environment can be a source of problems and even the cause of an organization’s failure if it does not provide the required functioning of the organization. Factors that determine the internal environment of an organization include variables such as the structure of the organization, its goals, objectives, technologies, and people. The internal environment can be considered as a set of structural components of an organization’s interaction. Internal organizational structure refers to the communication within the organization, which creates an environment conducive to employees in the organization, thinks of common ways to solve problems, exchange important information, etc. Which in itself contributes to a high degree of strategy orientation, which is directly proportional to achieving the maximum desired result. That is why internal organizational communication should be based on openness, clarity and simplicity, reliability, and mutual respect, both among the employees themselves, as well as between the employees and the representatives of the management.

Employees need to feel connected to the company – these are solutions, initiatives, common problems, plans developed, and so on. These connections are essential for employees to understand why executives make decisions and make changes. When they realize what drives these decisions and changes, they are more likely to feel a sense of teamwork and are motivated to bring more benefits to the organization that values it. It is also noteworthy that with the effective internal structured communication the company seeks to avoid bureaucracy. [3] Mechanisms such as face-to-face, telephone, or e-mail communication are used for direct internal communication. As well as, proven practice is meetings in the workplace, publishing corporate newspapers, individual conversations and more. [2]It should also be noted, that there are various barriers to the transmission of information that may arise from the sender. This happens when the message is vague, unstructured, and conveyed in an appropriate way. This can lead to misinterpretation and distortion of the content. This result may arise even if linguistic and cultural differences are not taken into account.

Types of Internal Structural Communication

Organization’s internal structural communication can be divided into both formal and informal. Formal communication follows hierarchical structures, established rules, and norms. The formal channel of communication, which is related to the labor process, is defined and implemented by the governing body of the organization itself. It provides employees with a variety of information, messages, announcements, changes, and feedback. All other types of information, personal or social type, are transmitted through informal networks. Informal groups are formed within the organization based on common interests or other similar common social preconditions and in turn contribute to the creation of a healthy organizational atmosphere. Internal structural communications can be vertical or horizontal depending on the type of relationship:

during vertical communication, information messages are transmitted from the upper tier to the lower tier. In such cases, the subordinates are mainly given specific tasks, and information through the control ring. An example of this is the case when a director issues specific information to employees about organizational change. However, when we talk about vertical communications, we must not forget that in addition to downward communication, there is also communication in the opposite direction, when the message is transmitted from the subordinate link, in the direction of the control ring. Through ascending communication, the top management of the organization is given the opportunity to receive direct feedback from users, learn about identified problems, receive general information about ongoing processes in the lower echelon, and so on. Consequently, the specificity of the vertical communication between the superior and the subordinate depends on the specific organizational goals and requirements. [2] As we know any kind of organization consists of different divisions and departments, therefore for their overall organizational success it is important to have constant communication and coordinated cooperation. The relevant means to ensure this is horizontal communication, which is a prerequisite for the formation of an equal and equal relationship in the organization.

External Structural Communication

External structural communication refers to the communication between the organization and the environment around it. During external communication, the organization is presented to a wide audience, as well as directly to the target audience. It is in the process of interaction with various organizational structures or people that the reputation and image of the organization is formed, which can bring a lot of positive results in the long run. For this reason, the organization has to cooperate with various private or state structural units on a daily basis, communicate with existing or potential customers, communicate with partner organizations, etc. At the same time, external communication and internal communication are closely related to each other, as external communication is a kind of link between the environment and the internal spaces of the organization. [2]By establishing communication with various members of society or government agencies, the organization receives a wealth of feedback or information, which it uses to promote organizational success and internal structures. Gathering information and constantly integrating with the outside world is vital to the organization as it is the only way to balance customer needs and requirements.

Types of External Structural Communication

External structural communication Like internal structural communication, can be both formal and informal. [3]Informal communication, especially when it comes to organizational negotiations, dissemination of information messages, etc. Email communication is actively used as it shortens the communication time and gives us a guarantee that the message has really reached the addressee. Of course, the form of formal communication with the environment depends on the specifics of the message itself, for example, if an organization wants to spread information about a new product or service offering, it may also use mechanisms such as advertising, releases, and blogs. There is another form of formal communication, such as conference meetings. It is important that business meetings are pre-arranged and scheduled in advance. It is necessary to write in advance the schedule of the meeting, as well as the competence and relevance of the persons present at the meeting. It is necessary to have a predetermined meeting schedule and everything to be organized as much as possible in order for all this to further emphasize the organizational image. As for informal communication, it means communication between those who are not directly involved in the control of the organization, which means indirect communication of employees with the outside world. For example, employees gain different experiences and gain new knowledge on a daily basis, exchanging innovations, diversifying their knowledge, and when they discuss this in the organization’s external environment, it uniquely reflects the company’s reputation as informal external communication. It should also be noted that some managers use informal communication methods to find out what employees think honestly and this information is obtained through feedback. In addition, some employees inadvertently use informal communication methods to inform managers of their attitudes without submitting a written form or face-to-face conversation. Ultimately, informal communications include conversations between people, such as discussing any non-informal topic, which aims to share information in an unplanned, random manner.


Any kind of communication for a public or private organization is a definite determinant of success. From the description of the internal and external structural communication presented in the article, we can boldly say that there are two concepts of different meanings. Internal structural communication determines the proper formulation of the organization’s action plan, defines the organizational structure, creates a healthy atmosphere, takes relevant actions based on internal feedback, and etc. Especially when the range of programs and tools in today’s digital world helps to improve communication between company employees, and these processes are a prerequisite for the successful operation of the organization with the outside world, as external structural communication involves interaction with any entity or organization outside the organization.


1.         Types of communication ://

2.         The impact of organizational communication on public and nonprofit managers’ perception of red tape. Prepared for delivery at the 10th National Public Management Research Conference (PMRC), Hyatt on Capitol Square, Columbus, Ohio, October 1-3, 2009

3.         Structural Communication, Anders Friberg, Giovanni Umberto Battel, 2002

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